pISSN: 1226-9980

한국민족운동사연구, Vol.106 (2021)

일본인의 晉州移住와 일본인 사회의 형성 - 초기 이주와 정착기를 중심으로(1901~1914) -


(국립경상대학교 사학과 박사과정 수료)

진주는 일본과 지리적으로 가까운 경상남도 도청 소재지임에도 불구 하고 일본인의 이주는 다소 늦은 1901년 시작되었다. 진주에 일본인의 정착이 늦은 이유는 지리산을 중심으로 한 진주와 인근의 지속적인 의병 활동과 경부선 연선에서 크게 벗어난 교통의 오지(奧地)라는 교통 불편이 주된 이유였다. 여기에 임진왜란 2차례의 전란으로 형성된 강한 배일(排 日) 정서도 한 요인으로 추측된다. 이로 인해 일본인은 이주 후에도 상당 기간 정착에 어려움을 겪어야 했다. 진주에 정착한 일본인들은 매립사업을 통해 거주지를 확보하고 자경 단(自警團)과 일어학교 등 단체를 조직해 일본인 사회를 형성해 나갔다. 또한 1907년 진주일본인회를 조직해 교육, 의료, 위생, 소방 등 자신들의 자치와 권익을 확대해 나갔다. 이 과정에서 일본인들은 진주성벽(晉州城 壁)을 훼철(毁撤)하고 해자역할을 하던 대사지(大寺池)를 매립하는 토목 공사를 진행하였다. 이로 인해 진주는 전통도시의 기능은 급격히 상실되 고 일본인들이 주도하는 식민도시화가 급격하게 이뤄졌다.

Japanese Migration to Jinju and the Formation of Japanese Society

Kang, Ho-gwang

Japanese people first immigrated to Jinju in 1902 and started to reside (定 住) in 1903. Despite the location of the Gyeongnam provincial office, the immigration rate of Japanese people is slow compared to nearby cities such as Busan and Masan, which had open ports. The reason why Japanese people's immigration to Jinju was delayed was due to the fact that it is a remote place (奧地) for land transportation and the strong anti‐Japanese (排 日) sentiment formed after the Imjin‐year Japanese Invasion. Therefore, even after the immigration, Japanese people in Jinju had to go through a long period of fear. Japanese people who immigrated to Jinju formed various organizations to protect their rights and interests. Japanese schools were established including the “Jinju Japanese People's Association”, and the Local Veterans Association, the Industry Association, the Chamber of Commerce, and the Dangbun Association were organized. They also expanded their area of residence through the reclamation of Daesaji (大寺池), and they actively purchased land to expand the influence of the local economy. Due to the reclamation of Daesaji, many parts of Jinju Fortress walls were damaged. Jinju, a traditional city, was destroyed (毁撤) in many places. Meanwhile, what was changed markedly by the Japanese people who immigrated to Jinju is the expansion of the transportation network between the city center and the surrounding area. The main gateway for Jinju Japanese people was Samcheonpo Port. First, the road connecting Jinju and Samcheonpo was expanded, and a boat bridge (船橋) was completed to connect the Nam river, which could only be crossed by ferry (渡船), from north to south. With the completion of the boat bridge, cars could run from the center of Jinju across the Nam river to Samcheonpo Port. They also promoted the expansion of roads leading to major cities in the north, south, east, west, centering on Jinju. Therefore, by Japanese people who immigrated to Jinju during the opening of the port and in the early days of Imperial Japanese colonial rule, Jinju was transformed into a modern city more steeply.

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